AQAST Tiger Team Year 4 Projects

  1. Title: Air Quality Reanalysis (Translating Research to Services). Performance period: 10/1/2014-9/30/2015. Request for Continuation of Year 3 Project. Lead PI: Greg Carmichael (University of Iowa). Other AQAST participants: Pius Lee (ARL/NOAA), Brad Pierce (NESDIS/NOAA), Scott Spak (University of Iowa), Dick McNider (University of Alabama), Ted Russell (Georgia Tech), Yang Liu (Emory University), and David Edwards (NCAR), Ed Hyer (NRL). AQ management contacts: Ajith Kaduwela (CARB), James Boylan (GA DNR), Jennifer Haines (MD DEQ), Daniel Salkovitz (VA DEQ), Sharon Phillips (US EPA), Joe Cassmassi (SC AQMD) and Judy Qualters (CDC/NCEH/EHHE). Problem to be solved: Air quality (AQ) models are an important component of environmental management and public health protection. Due to the complexities of processes that determine air quality, current predictions have significant uncertainties. Modeled pollution distributions constrained by observations using chemical and aerosol data assimilation can be used to produce more accurate State Implementation Plans, for exceptional event identification, and to improve health impacts assessments. A global to regional reanalysis system will be demonstrated for the CONUS domain.

  2. Title: Mid-term Evaluation of AQAST’s Impact on the Air Quality Management Community. PI: Jana Milford, CU Boulder. Team members: Daniel Jacob, Bryan Duncan, Tracey Holloway. Other personnel: Daniel Knight, CU Boulder; Ana Prados, U Md – Baltimore County (unfunded participant). AQ management contacts: Pat Dolwick, U.S. EPA; Tom Moore, WRAP; David Lighthall, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control Agency. Project duration: January 1, 2015 – December 31, 2015. Problem to be solved: As AQAST enters its fourth year, there is interest in understanding AQAST’s impact and lessons learned, to inform both continuing operations and NASA’s planning for future applied science programs. At the same time, there is broad interest across the scientific enterprise in approaches to enhance the usability of science for societal benefit (e.g., Cash et al., 2003; Dilling and Lemos, 2011). AQAST is a prime example of a program designed specifically to do this, so lessons learned from this effort should have broad relevance for the science policy community.

  3. Title: Web-Enabled Tools for Air Quality Management Decision Support. Performance period: 10/1/2014-9/30/2015. Request for Continuation of Year 3 Project. Lead PIs: Jim Szykman and Scott Spak. Other AQAST Members: Greg Carmichael, Daven Henze, Dick McNider, Brad Pierce AQ management contacts: Terry Keating, Susan Anenberg (USEPA OAR OAQPS), Rohit Mathur (USEPA ORD), Chris Misenis, Sharon Phillips (USEPA AQMD), David Lighthall (San Joaquin Valley Air Pollut ion Control District), Matthew Johnson (IA DNR). Problems to be solved: Effective air quality management requires AQ management organizations to acquire, analyze, and develop useful data products and policy relevant information from complex sets of data. Satellite data (physical and atmospheric composit ion) and numerical model output are among the most complex data sets to analyze and present in a user-ready and policy-relevant manner. In addition, efforts to translate data for increased and more effective use by AQ management agencies are often done as “one-off” analyses and not developed for use by the wider AQ community. By employing the Air Quality Cyberinfrastructure Best Practices developed under the EPA-funded CyAir Project (http://cyair.net/), and demonstrated through the EPA Remote Sensing Information Gateway (RSIG3D – http://www.epa.gov/rsig/), we propose the extension of existing tools and creation of new interoperable systems to support delivery and presentation of AQAST and NASA data products in a user-ready and policy-relevant manner.

  4. Title: DYNAMO: DYnamic Inputs of Natural Conditions for Air Quality MOdels. Lead PI: Daniel Cohan (Rice). AQAST participants: Loretta Mickley (Harvard), Richard McNider andArastoo Pour-Biazar (U. Alabama-Huntsville), and Bryan Duncan (NASA). AQ management contacts: Jesse Bash, Pat Dolwick, Venkatesh Rao, and Chris Misenis, US EPA; MarkEstes, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality; Jeremy Avise, California Air Resources Board. Problem to be solved: Radiative conditions and biogenic and wildfire emissions strongly influence airquality but are often poorly characterized in photochemical modeling. Opportunities for satellite data to improve the representation of these dynamic conditions have not been fully realized.

  5. Title: Quantifying Source Contributions to O3 and PM2.5 Pollution Episodes Across the Eastern U.S. (continuing project). Performance period: 1/1/2015-12/31/2015. Lead Co-PIs: Tracey Holloway (Univ. of Wisconsin) and Arlene Fiore (Columbia/LDEO). Other AQAST participants: Greg Carmichael (Univ. of IA), Daniel Cohan (Rice Univ.), Bryan Duncan (NASA), Daven Henze (CU-Boulder), Edward Hyer (NRL), Daniel Jacob (Harvard), Russ Dickerson (Univ. of MD), Gabriele Pfister (NCAR). AQ management contacts: State air agencies -- Connecticut [Kurt Kebschull], Maine [Tom Downs], Maryland. [Tad Aburn and Michael Woodman]; Missouri [Emily Wilbur, Stephen Hall, Patricia Maliro, and Michael Maddux], New Hampshire [Jeff Underhill] New York [Michael Ku]; Texas [Mark Estes]; Vermont [Rich Poirot]; Wisconsin [Angela Dickens, David Bizot, and Bart Sponseller]; Regional & national -- MARAMA [Julie McDill], NESCAUM [Paul Miller and Leiran Biton]; Ozone Transport Commission [Joseph Jakuta] US EPA [Kirk Baker, Terry Keating, Bob Kelly]. Problem to be solved: As the ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) NAAQS thresholds arelowered, states face increasing pressure to diagnose elevated pollution events in order to develop effective emission control strategies. In particular, the role of local emissions versus cross-state and cross-national pollution transport must be evaluated, as well as the determination of evidence supporting exemptions for exceptional events. Satellite data, and other NASA science resources, can support these types of episode analyses, but expertise is often needed when deciding how to use and interpret a particular data product.

  6. Title: Relationships and trends among satellite NO2 columns, NOx emissions, and air quality in North America (continuation of Year 3 project with one new component). Lead PI: David Streets, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Other AQAST participants: Greg Carmichael, U Iowa; Dan Cohan, Rice U; Ben de Foy, Saint Louis U; Bryan Duncan, NASA; Arlene Fiore, Columbia U; Tracey Holloway, U Wisconsin. Other participants: Folkert Boersma, KNMI; Nickolay Krotkov, NASA; Lok Lamsal, NASA; Zifeng Lu, ANL; Lee Murray, Columbia U; Ana Prados, NASA; Lukas Valin, Columbia U. AQ management contacts: Jesse Bash, Marc Houyoux, Carey Jang, Rob Pinder, Jeremy Schreifels, Heather Simon (EPA/HQ); Tad Aburn, Mike Woodman, Jennifer Haines (MDE); Mark Estes (TCEQ); Patrick Reddy (CDPHE); Angela Dickens (LADCO). Problem to be solved: To enable U.S. air quality managers to use satellite retrievals to verify, correct, and supplement (spatially, temporally) estimates of current NOx emissions and recent trends in North American inventories (for the U.S., Canada, and Mexico).

  7. Title: Satellite Signatures of Trace Gas Emissions Associated with US Oil & Natural Gas Extraction. Performance period: 1/1/2015-12/30/2015. Lead PI: Anne M. Thompson (GSFC). Other AQAST participants: D. Kollonige (UMD/ESSIC), R. Dickerson (UMD), B. Pierce (NOAA), T. Holloway (UW), D. Jacob (Harvard), G. Pfister/D. Edwards (NCAR), J. Milford/D. Henze (CU-B). Problem Addressed by Tiger Team: Air Quality Managers (AQM) in regions affected by rapidly expanding oil and natural gas (ONG) extraction (1-3), especially by hydraulic fracturing, are working to address these questions: (1) What is the burden of CH4, NOx, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and byproducts (eg, HCHO, CO) being released by new mines and wells? Or put a different way: Have levels of regional CH4 and other gases increased in the past 5-10 years with expanding ONG extraction? (2) Can we verify modified emissions inventories that AQM are developing based on increased ONG sources? Progress Report: Please view our progress report dated 15 Oct 2014.